19 November 2018
Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) can be used by signatory countries to manage their participation in global value chains as well as cross-border migration flows. The inclusion of one additional provision in PTAs stimulates the bilateral fragmentation of production by one percent. PTAs that...
12 November 2018
Substantive standards in new international investment agreements converge, including between Europe and North America. Typical features of convergence include market access commitments, broad most-favoured-nation and national treatment clauses, a narrowing of some substantive standards, and broad...
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