Bernard Hoekman is the Director of the research strand “Global Economics: Multilateral Cooperation and Policy Spillovers”. He has held various senior positions at the World Bank, including Director of the International Trade Department and Research Manager in the Development Research Group. He has also worked as an economist in the GATT Secretariat and held visiting appointments at SciencesPo. He has published widely on trade policy and development, the global trading system, and trade in services. He is a graduate of the Erasmus University Rotterdam and holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. He is a Research Fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) and a Senior Associate of the Cairo-based Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Turkey and Iran (Cairo). Other positions include Chairperson, Global Agenda Council on Logistics & Supply Chain Systems, World Economic Forum. His most recent book is The Political Economy of the World Trading System (Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 2009, co-authored with M. Kostecki).